New book by the members of the INIS Institute “FROM SECURITY SCIENCE TO SECURITY CULTURE” Juliusz Piwowarski and Darko Trifunovic


In From Security Science to Security Culture, authors Juliusz Piwowarski and Darko Trifunović add to the growing body of literature about security science, in particular, how security science can contribute to the development of a security culture. One of the challenges facing the development of security science as an academic discipline is that, in the view of some, security science as compared to the traditional disciplines, lacks validity. Nonetheless, the topic has generated a cornucopia of books and articles discussing the nature and methodology of this emerging discipline. Smith and Brooks, for example, argue that Security Science allows the scientific method to be applied to security issues, indicating that logical thought can be applied to further the development of security science and enable security science to become an effective tool that can be applied to the protection of people, assets, and information. Piwowarski and Trifunović add to this viewpoint and take it a step further by explaining the methods and steps by which security science can lead the way to the development of a security culture. Emphasizing the growth of security science as an academic discipline in Poland and Serbia, the authors outline the process by which this evolution can take place. Noting the ongoing proliferation of security risks, they argue that security science provides the best method for amalgamating a variety of academic disciplines and social practices that can bring about the emergence of a security culture which can produce a unique discipline which may enable the creation of improved security risk assessments that can come from within a state or from sources beyond a state’s borders. Interestingly, the authors argue that Security Science “… cannot be a sub-discipline, instead, all other social sciences can become a sub-discipline of Security Science.” Drawing on a variety of sources ranging from the humanities to various social science disciplines, the authors emphasize the work of Professor Barry Buzan and the Copenhagen School. They especially note the Copenhagen School’s emphasis on the non-military elements of security assessment, which was a step away from the more traditional focus of security experts. This has allowed the emergence of this newly emerging academic discipline now known as Security Science. Through what they call the Security Rhombus, the authors detail the process by which security science can drive a process that will produce, first, a security environment, defining and explaining in detail what brings about a security environment and its creation. Out of this will emerge a culture of security. The authors credit the Copenhagen School for expanding research to include a focus that goes beyond nation-states. This, they assert, has created a more interdisciplinary approach to the study (or science) of security, so that research can range from human interactions, to national and then to international security. Ultimately, the authors demonstrate the essential importance of a national security culture as the foundation of an overall security culture. They conclude by warning, that, even with globalization, nation states would do well to focus on their own security resilience as a safeguard in the event of global catastrophe. The authors have produced a thoughtful argument about the purpose and goals of the newly emerging academic discipline of security science. Piwowarski and Trifunović’s support for and belief in the importance of security science is evident throughout the manuscript and emphasizes the importance, in their view, of the discipline and how it may transform and improve research into the varied aspects that challenge security professionals and those who study security issues. The emphasis on an interdisciplinary approach to studying security concerns, whether from an academic or professional level, is especially welcome as this approach may well be the best method of dealing with the proliferation of challenges to human security, whether from an individual, social, community/national or international perspective. Gregory Moore, Ph.D. Professor of History & Security Studies Director, Center for Intelligence Studies Department of Public Service & Security Studies Notre Dame College South Euclid, Ohio USA 44121